Friday, September 4, 2020

Largest Counties by Population in the United States

Biggest Counties by Population in the United States Forty-three districts in the United States have a populace more noteworthy than 1 million, positioned by populace. The information for this rundown depends on mid-2016 populace gauges from the United States Census Bureau. In 2010, just 39 areas in the United States had a populace of more than 1 million, and Los Angeles County had less than 10 million inhabitants. The main five rundown continues as before as in 2010.â From this rundown, you can see that albeit a significant part of the countrys populace is packed in the megalopolis district of the Northeast, there is impressive populace in the metropolitan areas of the Sun Belt from Texas to California. These intensely populated urban areas of Texas, Arizona, and California keep on encountering marvelous development as populace decreases in places like the Rust Belt continue.â Biggest Counties by Population Los Angeles County, CA: 10,116,705Cook County, IL: 5,246,456Harris County, TX: 4,441,370Maricopa County, AZ: 4,087,191San Diego County, California: 3,263,431Orange County, California: 3,145,515Miami-Dade County, Florida: 2,662,874Kings County, New York: 2,621,793Dallas County, Texas: 2,518,638Riverside County, California: 2,329,271Queens County, New York: 2,321,580San Bernardino County, California: 2,112,619King County, Washington: 2,079,967Clark County, Nevada: 2,069,681Tarrant County, Texas: 1,945,360Santa Clara County, California: 1,894,605Broward County, Florida: 1,869,235Bexar County, Texas: 1,855,866Wayne County, Michigan: 1,764,804New York County, New York: 1,636,268Alameda County, California: 1,610,921Middlesex County, Massachusetts: 1,570,315Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania: 1,560,297Suffolk County, New York: 1,502,968Sacramento County, California: 1,482,026Bronx County, New York: 1,438,159Palm Beach County, Florida: 1,397,710Nassau County, New York: 1,358,627Hillsborough C ounty, Florida: 1,316,298 Cuyahoga County, Ohio: 1,259,828Orange County, Florida: 1,253,001Oakland County, Michigan: 1,237,868Franklin County, Ohio: 1,231,393Allegheny County, Pennsylvania: 1,231,255Hennepin County, Minnesota: 1,212,064Travis County, Texas: 1,151,145Fairfax County, Virginia: 1,137,538Contra Costa County, California: 1,111,339Salt Lake County, Utah: 1,091,742Montgomery County, Maryland: 1,030,447Â Mecklenburg County, North Carolina: 1,012,539Pima County, Arizona: 1,004,516Â St. Louis County, Missouri: 1,001,876

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility Policy of Multi National Corporations Essay

Corporate Social Responsibility Policy of Multi National Corporations - Essay Example World Business Council for Sustainable Development characterizes Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as The proceeding with duty by business to carry on morally and add to monetary turn of events while improving the personal satisfaction of the workforce and their families just as of the nearby network and society on the loose. The European Commission advocates that CSR implies satisfying legitimate desires, yet in addition going past consistence and putting more into human capital, condition and relations with partners. The requirement for Multi National Corporations to embrace Corporate Social Responsibility and execute it in soul is huge in the present business situation. The opposition and corporate fighting in the business condition makes their concentrate conceited, yet in addition burglarizes them off all the consideration they have to give in the social setting. It is this distraught race, which should be controlled. It is on the grounds that opposition can catalyze the de-organizing of the social building dependent on qualities, ethics and a feeling of social obligation. There have been grave misfortunes to nature, individuals and their lives as increasingly more MNCs are enhancing their territories and reach of activity. It is this worry triggers a significant manner of thinking to smooth out this confusion. Some strategy in this franticness can possibly sneak in if these huge partnerships start to comprehend their job in a bigger and increasingly dependable point of view. The range of this point of view ought confine to the partners alone, however include the general public all in all. Review of writing There have been numerous looks into and concentrates on the idea of 'Corporate Social Responsibility'. There are numerous ways of thinking regarding the matter. A few examinations call CSR as an expansion of the brand-building exertion of the organizations, while others append a genuine practical meaning to the idea. The Green Paper (2001) by the Commission of the European Communities recognizes two fundamental elements of CSR. One is the interior measurement that identifies with the inside capacities and procedures of an organization. The outer measurement includes the outside partners. A few research-based investigations have examined the idea of 'Corporate Social Responsibility'. The various ways of thinking clarify it dependent on various encounters and results. One way of thinking underscores on the model of aggregate activity. As indicated by Jarusri Jiravistakul of the Kenan Institute, who led concentrates on the aggregate activity/foundation model and its execution in Thailand, Egypt and Indonesia the idea of CSR has prevailing as far as strategic policies, natural administration and limit advancement. This specific point of view discusses the tasks of business endeavors as they influence a wide range. The assets they utilize are not restricted to those of the owners and the effect of their tasks is felt by such a large number of individuals who are not the slightest bit associated with them. They influence the investors, the providers of assets, the shoppers, the nearby network and the general public on the loose. George Goyder in The Future of Private Enterprise contends, Industry in the twentieth century can no wait be

Friday, August 21, 2020

Market Model Patterns of Change Essay Example for Free

Market Model Patterns of Change Essay 1. Depict the business and clarify the general example of progress of the specific market model Health protection in the United States suppliers speak to serious market since they are various, assortment of decisions, and no single substance has a lot of control over costs. The medical coverage can be considered as quick development industry. As of late, this industry is changing in a fast way and advancing into an oligopoly. Protection advertises in numerous states are inevitably controlled and commanded by a couple of huge firms. There were in excess of 500 wellbeing back up plans included mergers somewhere in the range of 1998 and 2008 (Bakhtiari, 2010). In spite of the fact that there are many little insurance agencies working in the market, the industry Led by WellPoint, 12 wellbeing plans spread 66% of the enlistment in the U.S. business protection showcase (Bloomberg News, 2010). An examiners report refered to in the article predicts there will be 100 safety net providers with around 200,000 individuals could be constrained bankrupt. Littler back up plans are progressively incapable to put resources into the foundation and innovation to viably oversee care (Bakhtiari, 2010). Notwithstanding, mergers have been the fundamental force as opposed to little safety net providers leaving business. 2. Speculate the essential short-run and since a long time ago run practices of the model in the business you have picked in a â€Å"market economy† This paper utilizes Kinked-Demand hypothesis of oligopoly; there is no single hypothesis that clarifies oligopoly conduct. The wrinkled interest model accept that on the off chance that one firm raises the costs, different firms won't follow to increment. On the off chance that the firm lessens its value, it is accepted that its rivals will stick to this same pattern and decrease their costs too. The outcome is an interest bend for the firm that is wrinkled at the present balance value (Low, 2000). Accepting this as suspicion, a solitary wellbeing safety net provider that attempts to raise cost will lose piece of the overall industry mostly in light of the fact that different back up plans are not following, it will endure a deficit sought after on the grounds that the competitors’ costs stay low. In contract, if a solitary firm that cuts costs, the entirety of its rivals will follow to lessen the cost. Therefore, a firm will have a crimped request bend. Firms may work at a benefit in the short-run if interest for the item is high comparative with costs. The firm may power to leave business on the off chance that it can’t produce enough income to try and spread the variable expenses. Subsequently the model predicts that costs over the long haul ought to be genuinely inflexible in an oligopoly. This could demonstrate that protection premiums will remain genuinely stable in the medical coverage industry. The wrinkled interest hypothesis recommends there will be cost in these business sectors and the organizations will depend more on non-value rivalry to help deals, income and benefits. The outcome in piece of the pie is no addition and relative little increments in amount requested (Low, 2000). 3. Dissect in any event three (3) potential regions for the business that could prompt exchange costs, and clarify each in detail In the medical coverage industry, exchange cost could emerge from securing costs, process re-appropriating, and expanded item complexity.Acquisition is the cost of requesting and putting new protection business on a company’s books. It incorporates agent’s guaranteeing costs, clinical and credit, report expenses, commissions, and advertising bolster administrations. The critical endeavors are made by insurance agencies to bring down securing costs as a result of the opposition. Re-appropriating of procedures may turn into a need when firms get together an ever increasing number of clients because of mergers, the present workforce will not, at this point have the option to deal with occupations. At some point, recruiting more representatives could be expensive for certain organizations in light of expanding market compensations; redistributing could be the better alternative. Firms should pay extra costs to redistributing firms that procedure application and give client support. This lead to exchange cost. Exchange expenses may likewise emerge from increment item intricacy because of firms develop, union and combination. Items become increasingly mind boggling obliging more fragments because of social occasion more client; firms increment product offerings. Consequently, clients should acquire exchange costs in looking or inquisitive for the best item, and in assessing the nature of the administration. 4. Theorize about the conduct that could result from these exchanges and propose at any rate two (2) methodologies for managing them It influences consumers’ conduct for rethinking the wellbeing plan when exchange costs emerge from item unpredictability. Any vulnerability emerges from item vulnerability; it alludes to the troubles in deciding the nature of bought items (Thompson, 2004). Shoppers are probably going to ask more data whenever bought administrations will live up to their desires before they buy. Buyers depend on the quality assessment that protection specialists or references. This item vulnerability may expand exchange cost. This can be managed by fortifying item quality through promoting about the items and administrations, meeting with potential clients, and giving preparing to representatives to meet better desire. At the point when exchange costs emerge from authorization and checking, social outcomes are vulnerability. Conduct vulnerability alludes to the inborn challenges looked by purchasers in precisely assessing the authoritative execution of insurance agencies (Thompson, 2004). This expands exchange cost as purchasers invest more energy pondering purchasing protection in light of the fact that the cases may against them or unreasonable strategy. This can be managed by guaranteeing that potential clients comprehend the idea of the agreement. 5. Gather costs, income information, or other information from the business you consider important. Clarify how you would adjust the information so as to settle on it pertinent to choices a chief must make Base of the information from Austin Hungerford, medical coverage advertises in numerous neighborhoods profoundly thought and the activity of market power in concentrated markets by and large prompts more significant expenses and decreased yield. In the information, clinical misfortune proportions among significant safety net providers run from a low of 70.7% to practically 89%. Some significant business guarantors have had huge reductions in clinical cost proportions in the previous decade. For instance, CIGNA HealthCare’s clinical misfortune proportion, 86.3% in 2001, tumbled to 70.7% in 2008 (Austin Hungerford, 2009). All in all, clinical misfortune proportions can change drastically starting with one year then onto the next. This clarified by out of the blue high clinical expenses or by forceful estimating proposed to expand piece of the overall industry. The above information assist chiefs with understanding industry qualities superior to a person. It is pertinent to supervisors by uniting the entirety of the clinical misfortune proportion, and joining them in an industry normal. The directors have a superior vibe for industry midpoints and patterns. 6. Clarify the main considerations that influence the level of intensity in your industry. Utilize the information to create in any event three (3) measures (e.g., efficiency measures) to show how the business is advancing The main factor is the quantity of firms available. In the event that there are huge number of firms work in industry, in general costs will be diminished. The subsequent factor is government guideline which influences the level of seriousness of the medical coverage industry. The third is government gives medical coverage. This can change the whole approach for wellbeing industry. Private firms might be not able to contend with government’s protection plans. That will influence the general intensity of the business. These measures to show how the business is developing incorporate normal costs of health care coverage plans, potential purchasers, and in general normal clinical expenses. Normal cost of medical coverage will show the industrys advancement by looking at examples of benefit development according to medical coverage costs. The quantity of medical coverage purchasers will help comprehend the development designs in client base, and interest for medical coverage plans. Clinical costs will show the connection between industry developments, swelling of expenses, and increment all in all clinical consideration.

buy custom A Computer Virus essay

purchase custom A Computer Virus paper A PC infection can be characterized as a product program that spreads from one PC to the next and it meddles with the typical figure activity. It can likewise degenerate or erase information from the PC. PC infections can be masks in type of clever pictures, sound or video records or in any event, welcoming cards. They additionally spread through downloads on the web. To help dodge PC infections, it is fundamental to keep your PC with refreshed antivirus apparatuses. One ought to likewise know about the ongoing dangers and the PC ought to be run as a standard client other than a manager. There are three primary sorts of PC infections. These incorporate; the Trojan pony, worms and the email infections. Trojan pony infection is an infection seems like a program, which seems to have a reason yet in genuine sense, it has a totally different reason. It can show up in type of an image record yet ones you open it, you will have released the harming program on your PC. Trojan pony infections don't duplicate yet they spread consequently. The worms then again will influence any devise with a security defect and one that is arranged. It will duplicate without anyone else utilizing the security defect in your PC. A duplicate of the worm gets to another PC with a comparative security imperfection. The procedure will proceed and this is the means by which the worms are spread. The email infections utilize the email for their transportation. They are anyway like the other PC infections. Some PC infections are increasingly hazardous in that once they get into a PC; they duplicate and send the duplicates to the email address book. There are a few signs that your PC has infection. The PC turns out to be delayed than expected, it quits reacting and it could often bolt up. Your PC should crash and afterward it restarts all alone. The PC can likewise restart all alone because of infections. You will be unable to get to your drives including the hard plate. The typical printing becomes contorted and strange mistake messages will continue showing up. The discourse box and the menus could likewise get misshaped. Moreover, the current antivirus program can be impaired or you may discover challenges in running it. It can likewise get hard to introduce an antivirus program. Infections could likewise make your PC to create some surprising sounds. Projects will likewise vanish when they were not proposed to (Graham, 2006, p. 65). An antivirus is utilized to forestall, evacuate and recognize infection. A few systems are utilized for the antivirus to play out its motivation. Here is mark recognition that includes scanning for the infections. It is essential to get analyze different antivirus items in the market since they don't all work the equivalent. The advantages of an introducing an antivirus in your PC are clear given the impacts of antivirus to your PC. The expense of the PC delayed down are deplorable yet fortunately, we have current antivirus programming in the market that are of improved assurance given the trend setting innovation. Todays current antivirus programming doesn't require a lot of upkeep from you. Much the same as some other item in the market, antivirus are not the equivalent and they all having their great and terrible side. It is along these lines imperative to think about various programming projects before buying one for it to much your needs. The ease of use and adequacy of an antivirus can either represent the deciding moment the antivirus programming. We have the top positioned antivirus programming that is easy to understand and they offer ideal insurance. The different antiviru programming projects originate from various suppliers. The purchaser ought to think about the extent of assurance. Some antivirus give 360 degree safeguard, multi layered insurance or 100% security and unquestionably some subterranean insect infections are superior to other people. The best antivirus ought to give arrangements on infections, Trojans and worms just as insurance against spyware, email borne dangers, root units and key lumberjacks. In spite of the fact that they can't give all out insurance against dangers, antivirus ought to secure the PCs against numerous dangers as could reasonably be expected. The antivirus ought to be successful. The antivirus is typically intended to ensure the PC, so on the off chance that it doesn't, it in this manner gets pointless. The aftereffects of an antivirus are checked utilizing the business standard security programming analyzers. These are associations of expert security. They help to locate the best programming in the market. The analyzers help assess the general viability of the antivirus programming. The best antiviruses programs, as far as viability are positioned as underneath with their costs are positioned as follows. Value list NAME OF THE ANTIVIRUS Cost 1. Bit safeguard Antivirus $ 29.95 2. Kaspersky Antivirus $ 59.95 3. Web root Antivirus $ 39.95 4. Norton Antivirus $ 39.99 5. Esset Nod 32 Antivirus $39.99 6. AVG Antivirus $ 34.99 7. G DATA Antivirus $ 29.95 8. Avira Antivirus $ 23.49 9. Vipre Antivirus $29.95 10. Pattern Micro Titanium Antivirus $ 39.95 The antivirus programming purchased ought to be anything but difficult to introduce. Introducing ought not be a task. When you have introduced the product, it should offer assurance to your PC right away. The way toward introducing by and large terms ought to be simple. Once introduced, the principal examining and the execution of the antivirus ought to be a simple errand. In spite of the fact that the antivirus programming is unpredictable, it doesn't require security degree. The product ought not require upkeep sometimes and it should be adaptable enough to do what you need it to do. The antivirus ought to be state-of-the-art on the grounds that new infections are being found each now annd then in the mark database. In any case, the advanced antivirus programming refreshes itself consequently and they update quick with the goal that your PC doesn't hinder your framework. The security suppliers can a well push the updates to your PC straightforwardly when they are accessible. Some antivirus can filter sent and got messages just as opened documents. The product doesn't change the capacity of the host programming to transmit infections. The product must be refreshed routinely to stay up with the latest so as to recognize the most recent dangers. To forestall infections from influencing your PC, it is fitting not to open any surprising documents in your PC. In the event that you distinguish something unordinary, it is fitting to run your refreshed antivirus. It is likewise essential to examine your outside gadgets like the blaze plates before embeddings them into your PC (Szor, 2007, p. 75). It is imperative to note, before buying an antivirus, that the best programming doesn't require perusing the manual top to bottom to have the option to utilize it. Be that as it may, it must have a manual. Item support is given online by the producers if there should be an occurrence of investigating, explicit inquiries or some other extra assistance. All in all, the antivirus to be purchased ought to be productive, compelling, and simple to utilize. Freeware is programming that is accessible for use at no expense. In any case, it has certain limitations regarding utilization rights. The rights to duplicate, adjust, convey or make determination of the product. A genuine case of a freeware is Firefox. The permit may likewise limit the sort of utilization of the product for instance, non-business use, scholastic use, military use and a few different limitations. The product permit can likewise force limitations, for example, confined use on a server, limited use over a system among others. Numerous freeware items are given by business designers who give different items propelled highlights, yet explicitly available to be purchased. Freeware is treated as a limited time item. BBEdit and Text Wrangler are instances of freeware. Since freeware can't rely totally upon business advancement, the web turns into the best hotspot for freeware data. There are likewise a few papers or PC magazines giving rating to freeware. They contain data on freeware rating just as reduced circles and other stockpiling devises containing the freeware. It is conceivable to run a business antivirus without truly paying for it. This is conceivable in light of the fact that most antivirus organizations are offering test antivirus variants. These renditions are typically tried for 30 or even 90 days. Here, you should introduce an enemy of infection at regular intervals or 90 days depending with the time for testing. You should get the most dependable preliminary renditions for proficiency purposes. Instances of these preliminaries are Norton and MacAfee antivirus. It is prudent to run your antivirus programming in experimental mode. This mode gives you a superior opportunity to evacuate infections, Trojans, malware and different malevolent projects. Protected mode helps follow a few PC issues that couldn't be identified utilizing the standard mode. It keeps the pernicious apparatuses from stacking while at the same time firing up. The antiviruses have certain misfortunes in that it can impede the exhibition of the PC. Clients who are not experienced enough could have a difficult understanding or in any event, utilizing the antivirus. Off base utilization of antivirus may prompt penetrate of security. A road for assault is likewise made since the PC antivirus achievement relies upon accomplishing either the bogus positive or the bogus negatives while utilizing heuristic location. Purchase custom A Computer Virus exposition

Saturday, July 11, 2020

Essay Writing Tips: How to Write a Good Globalization Essay Sample

Essay Writing Tips: How to Write a Good Globalization Essay SampleTo write a good globalization essay sample requires great imagination and creativity. One needs to think out of the box, be open to different ideas and expand his or her own knowledge base. There are many essay writing samples in the market which provide instructions on how to write a globalization essay. However, it is up to the writer to figure out how to make use of these samples in a manner which is unique to them.I recently participated in a seminar in which the organizer stressed on using a few examples to help a student learn to understand globalization. This seminar in turn served as an opportunity for me to figure out the best way to develop my own global awareness.Globalization comes from the Latin word 'Globalis' which means the expansion of the world. As we know the western part of the world was known as the West for many centuries. However, globalization refers to the positive effects of globalization on t he economies of countries which started appearing a few decades ago. The economic effect of globalization is hard to measure but there is no doubt that it has brought tremendous benefits to developing countries. Such benefits include a wider range of business opportunities and a larger level of consumer purchasing power.To help create awareness of globalization among students, most college teachers and universities give globalization essay samples. The essay samples may include various events related to globalization such as globalization news stories, articles, TV shows and other multimedia media.Although there are some cases where the globalization essay samples do not represent the actual views of the writer. In fact, they are just written to present the writer's view. The writer may have a problem with words or syntax. For example, he may have difficulty choosing appropriate titles and paragraph headers for his essay.A good way to find out how the writer processes and uses these writing samples is to discuss the case with him. You can ask questions about his style and thought process which may provide some valuable insights. Sometimes you can even ask him to give you his feedback on certain words and sentences in the sample essays.In conclusion, it is not very difficult to write a globalization essay sample. You just need to adapt the instructions given by the teaching staff in order to be able to meet the deadlines of the school. Some teachers give writing assignments or turn in the entire class onto one topic. Make sure that you remember to carry out research in advance and also make the writing sample reflective of your own concerns and research interests.It is always a good idea to check on globalization essay samples before submitting your own work. You can use the Internet to check out different samples. Just bear in mind that the opinions expressed in these samples are not actually the opinions of the author of the essay.

Wednesday, June 24, 2020

Should DNA Be Tested In Rape Cases Law Essay - Free Essay Example

My research project will examine if DNA should be tested in earlier rape cases. Before the mid 1990s DNA was not tested a much as it is today in rape cases. Because of the lack of testing, it is possible that many innocent individuals are serving time for a crime they did not commit. This is the reason I feel this project is important to research. No innocent person should have to serve a sentence for a crime. Literature Review Rape is one of the most heinous crimes that can be committed. The word rape can have several different definitions. The one definition that is used by all states is if a man forcibly subjects a woman to sexual intercourse without her consent he has committed rape (, 2008). However, many people are falsely convicted of rape. By using DNA the falsely accused can regain their freedom. Despite the availability of DNA testing there are still people serving a sentence for a rape they did not commit. Bruce Grosss article False Rape All egations (2008) states that There is no way of knowing the number of defendants who have been convicted of rape on the basis of false allegation. One study found 28 cases in which the defendant had been convicted and served an average of 7 years in prison before being exonerated by DNA evidence. According to Alex Trensniowski s article, Ronald Cotton was wrongly sentenced to two life terms for rape, he was exonerated by DNA evidence in 1995 (2009). James McKinleys article tells of a Houston man that served five years in prison before released after DNA proved he did not sexually assault an 8 year old boy in 2002. Kara Goekes articles states that Ronald Taylor served a 13 of 60 year sentence for rape before DNA SHOULD DNA BE TESTED IN EARLIER RAPE CASES? proved him innocent (2008). Kevin Johnson describes in Cleared by DNA test, but still struggling to be free (2009), that not even DNA washes away the lasting stigma that shadows once-convicted sex offenders who are cleared b y genetic testing. From reading these articles I found that there is a desperate need for DNA testing of past rape cases. It is hard to imagine being accused and convicted of a crime you did not commit. That is why I feel DNA needs to be tested in all past rape cases. Discussion Rape is the most serious form of sexual assault in the United States. In all states if a man forcibly subjects a woman to sexual intercourse without her consent he has committed the crime of rape (, 2008). With todays technology DNA can help identify the rapist in a crime. However, Before DNA technology was widely available, individuals were found guilty of rape without proper evidence to convict them. DNA should be tested in earlier rape cases, because many innocent people have spent the majority of their life in prison for a rape that they did not commit. The victim can make a false identification during a line up or the victim could be making false rape allegations. Mitochondrial DNA can also be used in rape cases. Scientists are able to find victims hypotype, and detect the suspects haplotype (Didier, 2007). One study shows 28 cases in which the defendant had been convicted and served an average of seven years in prison before being exonerated by DNA evidence (Gross, 2009). SHOULD DNA BE TESTED IN EARLIER RAPE CASES? Another study shows nearly 90 percent of the 227 people cleared by DNA evidence since 1989 were convicted of some of the most heinous sex crimes. Not even DNA washes away the lasting stigma that shadows once convicted sex offenders who are cleared by genetic testing and the criminal justice system that wrongly jailed them offer little help, (Johnson, 2008). Sir Matthew Hale stated that rape is an accusation easily to be made and hard to be proved, and harder to be defended by the party accused, tho never so innocent, (Rumney, 2006). The following are cases that prove that DNA can prove innocence in rape case s. Sexual Assault Cases Jennifer Thompson picked Ronald Cotton as her rapist from a police line up. While in prison Cotton found another inmate bragging that he had raped Jennifer Thompson. Cotton contacted his lawyer to have a DNA test. Cotton was not a match. However the other inmate that was bragging about the rape, his DNA did match. Cotton was released in 1995 and received $105,000 from the state for his suffering (Tresniowski, 2009). Ronald Gene Taylor was tried for a rape and found guilty. He served twelve of the sixty year sentence before being found not guilty. Taylor was a suspect because he lived less than a mile from the crime scene and was brought to participate in a line up. The victim choose Taylor as her rapist, however she also stated that she was unable to see her attacker because it was dark. The Innocence Project began investigating the case in 1998. In 2006 DNA testing was ordered in the case. The new tests found biological material to sample and proved Taylors innocence, the evidence pointed to another man that would never be tried. Taylor may be able to collect up to $600,000 if SHOULD DNA BE TESTED IN EARLIER RAPE CASES? he sues the police department where the line up took place (Goeke, 2008). Ricardo Rachel! was arrested in 2002 for the assault on a 8 year old boy. The child and another child witness stated that Rachel! lured the boy to an abandoned house by offering money to him for cleaning up trash. The boy was then raped at the abandoned house. DNA evidence was available at the time of the arrest, however it was never processed to be use in the trial. Rachel! was found guilty and served five years in prison, before being released. The original DNA was court ordered to be tested and the test proved Rachel! was not the criminal. Rachel! is entitled to $300,000 in state repartitions (McKinley Jr., 2008). In 1987 a women in an apartment complex reported that she had been raped. She identifie d Marcus Lyon as the rapist. Lyons served three years for the crime. In 2007, Lyons was given his innocence after DNA evidence was tested. Lyons is entitled to $85,0000 for his time served as an innocent man (Smith, 2008). Willie Williams was found guilty in the 1985 rape of a Fulton county, Georgia woman. Williams was convicted on the victims eye witness statement. The DNA and rape kit were not tested before the trial. It was not tested until 2007, twenty-two years after Williams was arrested. The tests showed Williams was not the attacker. The DNA actual!y matched Kenneth Wicker a serial rapist. However, the woman that was attacked refused to testify again, because she stated it would be too hard on her to live through a trial again. Because of this Kenneth Wicker was never tried and walked as a free man (Torpy, 2009). Jerry Miller was convicted ofrape in 1981 and spent 24 years in prison. He finished his sentence before being found innocent. A year after his parole he was SHOULD DNA BE TESTED IN EARLIER RAPE CASES? proven innocent from DNA testing of the victims clothes against his. Johnny Briscoe was convicted of rape in 1982. Briscoe served 23 years in a Missouri prison. DNA was lifted from a cigarette butt showed it was not Briscoe who committed the crime (Johnson, 2009). Marlon Pendleton spent more than 12 years in prison for a sexual assault that had taken place in 1992. He was set free in 2006 (Mills, 2008). Sadly some people are not proven innocent until after their death. Tim Cole spent thirteen years in prison before suffering a major asthma attack that killed him in 1999. In 2008, DNA testing showed another man by the name Jerry Johnson was guilty of the crime instead of Cole. Johnson even admitted to the crime in writing four years before Coles death. In the letter Johnson stated that he had raped Michele Mallin in 1985 on the Texas Tech campus. At the time the letter was mai led to a police department Cole was already serving a sentence for the crime. The letter was ignored, so Johnson mailed another letter to Coles family, but by this time Cole was already dead (Johnson, 2009). Innocence Projects Luckily there are groups of people who are trying to help the innocent who are wrongfully convicted. One of these groups are titled, The Innocence Project. The Innocence Project is a non-profit legal clinic affiliated with the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University and created by Barry C. Scheck and Peter J. Neufeld in 1992. The project is dedicated to exonerating wrongfully convicted people through DNA testing. As a clinic, law students handle case work while supervised by a team of attorneys and clinic staff. The Innocence project states that, DNA testing has been a major factor in SHOULD DNA BE TESTED IN EARLIER RAPE CASES? changing the criminal justice system. It has provided scientific proof that the system convicts and sentences innocent people and that wrongful convictions are not rare events. Most importantly, DNA testing has opened a window into wrongful convictions so that we may study the causes and propose remedies that may minimize the chances that more innocent people are convicted (The Innocence Project, 2009). The first Innocence Project was Centurion Ministries it was founded in 1983 by a minister James McCloskey, a former executive who traded in his corporate career for a Masters of Divinity degree from Princeton University. Centurion Ministries is a nonÃÆ'ƒÂ ¯Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¿Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ½ profit organization whose mission is to free from prison and clear the names of individuals who are completely innocent of crimes for which they have been convicted and imprisoned. Centurion Ministries usually takes on cases of inmates who have been sentenced to life terms or were designated for execution (Innocence Projects in the US, 2009) . North Carolina became the first state to create an innocence commission, giving inmates who claim they were wrongly convicted a chance for freedom after their court appeals have failed. The panel has eight members who are empowered to subpoena records and witnesses and can consider new evidence not presented in court. Iffive of the commission members find that a claim of innocence deserves review, the case will be sent to a panel of three state Superior Court judges. Those jurists then would have to decide unanimously that an inmate was actually innocent in order for the conviction to be overturned (Weinstein, 2006). Some may oppose the testing of DNA in older rape cases. One reason could be SHOULD DNA BE TESTED IN EARLIER RAPE CASES? that they believe the testing would question the victims complaint between supporting victims and protecting the rights of the accused. Other may think that testing DNA in older rape cases would cost to much money. However, would it be better for the state to have to pay millions in fees to the defendant that was found not guilty after serving time in prison? Should money really come before a persons life? Some may think the testing will take too much time that could be spent on other current crimes. To solve this problem people need to be hired to work the older cases to insure they were properly processed. The time spent testing DNA does not compare to the time the innocent spent behind bars. A few authors and officials have suggested ways to deter people from falsely accusing rape. One way would be to charge the person who files a false rape allegation with filing a false report to the police. Another way would be to place the false allegation on their permanent record (Raphael,2008). However these steps could also cause real rape victims to be afraid to report the crime, in fear of being falsely charged themselves. Conclusion There is an outstanding amount of evidence that proves DNA should be tested in earlier rape cases. If there is any reason for doubt the evidence should be tested or retested. It is hard to imagine how many innocent people have died in jail as an innocent person. We want a justice system we can trust, not one that the innocent has to fear. SHOULD DNA BE TESTED IN EARLIER RAPE CASES? References Goeke, K (2008). Falsely Accused: The case of Ronald Gene. Forensic Examiner. 17,86. Gross, B (2009). False rape allegations: An assault on justice. Forensic Examiner. 18,66-70. Hatsch, D (2007). A rape case solved by mitochondrial DNA mixture analysis. Journal ofForensic Science. 52, 891-894. Johnson, K (2009, January 28). Cleared by DNA tests, but still struggling to be free. USA Today, p. AI. Johnson, K (2009, February 4). Texas family fights to clear name: Wrongfully convicted man died in prison. USA Today, p. A 3. Mckinley Jr., J. C. (2008, December 13). Man, imprisoned 5 years, is c leared of sexual assault. New York Times, p. A 14. Mills, S (2008, November). The heroes of the wrongfully convicted. Chicago Tribune, p. 2.4. Raphael, J (2008, March) The Duke lacrosse case. Violence Against Women, Vol. 14, Iss.3; p. 370. Retrieved March 02, 2010, from Innocence Projects in the US Web site: https://truthinjustice.orglips.htm. Retrieved March 02, 2010, from https://www.uslegal.coml. Rumney, P(2006,March). False allegations ofrape. Cambridge Law Journal, p.128ÃÆ'ƒÂ ¯Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¿Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ½ 158. Smith, G (2008, December 20). Gov. Rod Blagojevich pardons 22 people. SHOULD DNA BE TESTED IN EARLIER RAPE CASES? McClatchy-Tribune News. The Innocence Project, The Innocence Project. Retrieved March 01, 2010, Web site: Torpy, B (2009, February 1). Final grim twist in 85 rape case. Atlanta Journal, p. AI. Tresniowski, A (2009, March 16). She sent the wrong man to prison. People, 7I(10), 101. Weinstein, H ( 2006). North Carolina to weigh claims of innocence. Retrieved March 01,2010, from Truth In Justice Web site: https://truthinjustice.orgINCÃÆ'ƒÂ ¯Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¿Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ½commission.htm.